One’s ability to cope with the demands of caregiving can influence caregiver outcomes such as stress/burden (Pearlin et al., 1990). Research in the area of coping typically focuses on identifying the different strategies that caregivers adopt when faced with the challenges of caregiving (Barush, 1988; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980; Jalowiec, et al., 1984; McCubbin et al., 1996). Not surprisingly, different coping strategies result in different outcomes. Understanding how people cope can help inform interventions designed to assist caregivers in their caregiving roles.
- Measures the degree of caregiver involvement in activities that distract them from the caregiving role.
- 5 items
- Braithwaite, V. (1996). Understanding stress in informal caregiving: Is burden a problem of the individual or of society? Research on Aging, 18, 139-174.
- Measures six dimensions: care management, personal and psychological response to caregiving, interpersonal with spouse, interpersonal with others, financial, and personal health-related. Tool initially uses open-ended responses and then the caregivers rates the effectiveness of the response on a 5-poin scale.
- 34 items (5-point scale)
- Barusch, A. (1988). Problems and coping strategies of elderly spouse caregivers. The Gerontologist, 28(677-685).
Coping Strategies Inventory
- Measures six dimensions: problem-solving, help-seeking, existential growth, minimization of threat through diversional activities, fantasy, and blame.
- 48 items (4-point scale)
- Quayhagen, M. P., & Quayhagen, M. (1982). Coping with conflict: Measurement of age-related patterns. Research on Aging, 4, 364-377.
Family Coping Coherence Index
- Measures sense of coherence as a coping mechanism that caregivers use when managing life changes and stresses.
- 4-items (5-point scale)
- McCubbin, H. I., Larsen, A., & Olsen, D. (1996). Family Coping Coherence Index. In H. I. McCubbin, A. I. Thompson & M. A. McCubbin (Eds.), Family assessment resiliency, coping and adaption: Inventories for research and practice (pp. 703-712). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin.
Inventory of Coping Strategies
- Measures 4 dimensions: wishfulness, acceptance, intrapsychic, and instrumental.
- 16 items (5-point scale)
- Kiyak, H., Montgomery, R., Borson, S., & Teri, L. (1985). Coping patterns among patients with Alzheimer’s disease and non-demented elderly. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Scientific Meeting of the gerontological Society of America.
Jalowiec Coping Scale
- Measures differences in levels of burden using 8 coping strategies: confrontive, evasive, optimistic, fatalistic, emotive, palliative, supportant, and self-reliant.
- 40 items (5-point scale)
- Jalowiec, A., Murphy, S., & Powers, M. (1984). Psychometric assessment of the Jalowiec coping scale. Nursing Research, 33, 157-161.
Reinterpretation and Acceptance
- Measures emotion-focused and cognitive reframing strategies. Is not specifically designed for caregiving.
- 12 items (4-point scale)
- Braithwaite, V. (2000). Contextual or general stress outcomes: Making choices through caregiving appraisals. The Gerontologist, 40, 706-717.
Ways of Coping Checklist
- Measures 5 dimensions: problem-focused coping, wishful thinking, avoidance, seeks social support, and blames self.
- 42 items (4-point scale)
- Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.