Counseling/case management interventions has been demonstrated in reducing caregiver burden but not having any significant effect on depression, SWB, time to institutionalization, or CR symptoms.
Zarit & Femia (2008) state that while case management is a service caregivers are highly likely to receive, the relative modesty or absence of effects on caregiver outcomes may be explained by the fact that case management seeks to direct caregivers to services. While beneficial in theory, there is another side to the experience of caregiving which it may overlook, which is the psychological difficulty with ‘turning over the care of their relative to formal service providers’ (Zarit & Femia, 2008). The phenomenon of caregivers experiencing additional stress/anxiety when engaging with services is also a salient issue in studies of respite services (Schoenmakers, Buntinx, & DeLepeleire, 2010). Some positive effects on caregivers receiving case management have been documented early on in the intervention, however when followed up at 12 to 18 months, these positive effects had disappeared (Zarit & Femia, 2008). Also, no significant effects were noted on burden or depression reduction.